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赵文化陈列
发表时间:【2015/3/23 17:39:51】 浏览次数:5390次

    早在春秋时期,史书便有“邯郸之仓库实”,“邯郸亦漳、河间一都会也”的重要记载,邯郸成为当时晋国赵氏的城邑。赵氏先人,由微而发,励精图治,逐渐成为春秋重卿。公元前403年,赵、韩、魏“三家分晋”,赵国建立。公元前386年,赵敬侯从中牟迁都邯郸。赵氏东进北伐,开拓进取,不断发展。赵武灵王胡服骑射改革一举成就了赵国的强国地位,成为战国七雄之一。其疆域跨越今河北、山西、陕西、内蒙古四个省区以及山东、河南部分地区。从西部高低到东部平原,从中原平川再到漠北草原,赵国唱响了当时中华民族发展的最强音,可以说,“一部赵国史集中反映着中原以北地区诸民族冲突与融合的过程”。正是在这个过程中,才最终孕育了“开放、进取、包容”的赵文化精神特质。邯郸作为赵国的都城,经8代国君,历158年,是当时黄河以北地区重要的政治、经济、军事和文化中心。这里产生了发达的冶铁、制铜、制陶等手工业,形成了繁荣的城市商业贸易,孕育了荀子、公孙龙、慎到等一代学术大师,涌现出一大批“重诺尚义、慷慨悲歌”的英雄人物。两汉时期,仍以邯郸为国都设置赵国。随着西汉时期国家的统一和稳定,在西汉后期邯郸已复兴为当时“富冠海内”的五大都会之一,仅次于长安和洛阳,为全国第三大经济中心城市。在经济发展繁荣的基础上,战国以来的文化传统也得到承继和发展。赵地经济富足,人杰地灵,文化繁荣,于是形成了以邯郸为中心长达近600年的赵文化。因具有中原农业文化与北方草化二重性特点而独具风韵的赵文化,不仅对中华民族的融合发展做原文出了巨大的推动性贡献,对中国古代社会的发展产生了极其深远的影响,同时也铸就了河北大地“燕赵文化”慷慨悲歌的精神和脊梁。

    赵文化是邯郸历史的主体文化,是邯郸城市精神和个性风格形成的灵魂和根基。《赵文化》陈列旨在把先秦赵氏发展历史与战国、两汉赵国的考古发现糅合起来,充分利用了文物、图片、图表、文字、沙盘景观、复制模型等基本的陈列手段,让观众系统地了解赵文化的由来、形成和发展轨迹,感受赵国曾经的辉煌,从中去体味赵文化的独特风韵。陈列分为五个单元:1.生产与生活2.胡服骑射与对外战争3.国都邯郸城4.赵王陵与贵族墓5.赵地人文风俗。


Welcome to visit the exhibition of Zhao Culture. It falls into five parts, namely, Production & Life, Hu Fu Qi She & External Wars, The Capital Handan, King’s Tomb of Zhao & Aristocratic Tombs and Customs in Zhao. You may choose the number and press the corresponding button for whichever aspect you want to know.

In the Spring and Autumn period, Handan was already the capital city of the Jin State ruled by the Zhao family. In 403 BC, the three families of Zhao, Han and Wei carved up the Jin State. So, the Zhao State was established. In 386 BC, Zhao Jinghou removed the capital to Handan, which immediately became the political, economic, military and cultural center of the state. King Wuling of Zhao State innovated “Hu Fu Qi She”, which enabled Zhao to be listed as one of the “seven powers of the Warring States period”. Until Zhao perished, Handan served as a capital of the Zhao State for 158 years ruled by eight generations. During the Han dynasty, the system of enfeoffment and the system of prefectures and counties coexisted. Therefore, the Zhao enfeoffement was reestablished in the original Zhao State. It took Handan as its capital for over 400 years. If you want to have a thorough understanding of the lineage of Zhao, please have a look at the chart on display.

This is a territory map of the Zhao State. When King Wuling of Zhao State got the throne, the territory of the state occupied the largest area. Its south reached to the Zhang River and neighbored to the states of Han and Wei. The east end stretched to the bordering places between the present-day Hebei and Shandong. The west went far to Baotou and Hetao area. The north rested on Yin Mountain and bordered on the minorities. The vast land of Zhao spanned today’s Hebei, most part of Shan’xi, and parts of Henan, Shandong, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. The state of Zhao enjoyed prosperous economy, numerous talents and booming culture. The splendid Zhao culture had a unique charm featured with agricultural culture of the central plains and grassland culture of the north, which played a vital role in Chinese history.

10. The Zhao State was a strong power in the east in the Warring States period. The reform of “Hu Fu Qi She” put forward by King Wuling empowered the Zhao State to ascend to the “seven powers” at a fast speed. The then Zhao State occupied a vast territory, with abundant resources, prosperous farming and animal husbandry and developed handicraft industry. Handan city in Han period enjoyed developed economy and flourishing commerce and trade. In the late Western Han, it became one of the “five big capitals” in China and the third economic center at that time. Handan was known as “a famous capital rich within the country”.

This chart is the irrigation channel from Zhang River. It was an irrigation project led by Xi’men Bao, who worked as the magistrate of Ye County in the Wei State during the Warring States period. When Ye County was merged into the Zhao State, this channel still played an important role. Its construction not only decreased the flooding of Zhang River but also transformed the saline and alkali land into fertile areas.

The ox tillage was widespread in Han dynasty. The combination of ox tillage and plough tillage further broadened the farming land and thus the middle and southern Hebei have became one of the most developed farming area in China.

Pottery Duck-shaped Zun

It was excavated in Baijia Village in western Handan city in 1974. It is a gray pottery made of clay. It belongs to a drinking vessel. The zun is 25.8cm high and 4.5cm long. The duck erects its head and open the mouth, with a slight curled tail. A round mouth rests on the back. The belly and neck are hollow and connected. The duck’s mouth is the mouth of the zun. The wine can be poured out from the duck’s mouth. The shape is vivid and ture to life, which reflects an advanced level of pottery handicraft industry at that time.

Painted Pottery Pot with Lotus-petal Pattern

It was unearthed in Baijia Village in 1974. It is brown. The pot has a total height of 52.2cm, a mouth diameter of 19.5cm and a bottom diameter of 19cm. It has a vertical mouth, a swelling belly and a short circular foot. A five-petal lotus erects. There are five bowstrings on the pot body, with linking pattern and curling cloud pattern carved between the bowstrings and the upper red paint. The vessel was skillfully made, with slim lines and provides an important textural material for the study of pottery processing in the Warring States period.

Ding with a Lid, Loops, Hoof-shaped Legs and Thunder Pattern

The ding is a boiling vessel. It was uncovered in a tomb of the Warring States period in the north gate of Handan Iron and Steel Group in 1989. It has a total height of 31.1cm, a mouth diameter of 28cm and a belly diameter of 31cm, weighing about 5,800g. The lid is in a shape of reversed basin and is decorated with interlocked dragon pattern and thunder pattern. There are three flat buttons on the top. The body has a contracted mouth, a swelling belly, a round bottom and three hoof-shaped legs. The body with the lid looks like a ball. Two circuits of decorative ribbons of linking thunder pattern surround the body. It is a precious textural material of the study of Handan history and Zhao culture.

11. According to historical documents, the iron smelting industry was highly developed in Zhao. Handan was one of the three iron-smelting centers in the Warring States period. The most important production was iron-farming tools. At that time, farming implements made of iron were widely employed in every sector of agricultural production, which greatly improved the labor productivity and grain output.

As a famous iron-smelting center in China, Handan was inhabited by a large number of great masters in iron smelting represented by the Zhuo’s, and Guo Zong. They made a big fortune due to iron smelting and their belongings could compete with those of the nobilities. It showed that their workshop enjoyed a large scale. The picture of an iron burner in the Warring States period and in Han dynasty is only one of the burner groups at the site.

Iron Adz

The iron adz is a farming tool for reclaiming land. Its shape is similar to that of an axe. But most of axes have double blades while the adz has only one blade. The back of the adz is slightly in an arc, with a curved handle inside. It is not only used in agriculture but is also a major tool for the carpenter. In ancient times, no plane existed. An adz was used to make a timber material smooth and tidy instead of a plane.

With the development of grain processing techniques, the brewing technique became mature and the output of wine was further improved. At that time, people drank a lot. The shapes of drinking vessels became more and more practical. The pot, zun and he were wine containers while the mug was a drinking vessel. The allusion of “the worse wine from the Lu State and Handan was surrounded” was recorded in Huai Nanzi, which shows that the Zhao wine was the good one at that time and was known far and wide.

In Han dynasty, because of the rapid development of agricultural production, the storage and processing techniques of grain were greatly improved. The wealthy constructed all types of special granaries to store grain. The millstones were used to process grain and grinded the grain into powders, which offered a good condition for the refining and variety of pastry.

12. In Han dynasty, the high centralized land and wealth enabled the appearance of powerful landlords who had a large number of lands, hangers-on and private soldiers. They built grand and magnificent castles to consolidate their owned interest. Those castles were centered on high buildings, surrounded by high walls, which had watchtowers constructed on the four corners. The green-glazed pottery building on display has a beautiful shape and is well-preserved, which reflects the glaze pottery processing technology in Eastern Han to some extent.

Simple Bronze Lamp with Goose’s Leg, Eastern Han Dynasty

The upper is the lamp panel. The middle pillar serves as the goose-shaped leg, under which a square stand rests. It is of great artistic value in the shape and technology.

With the enhancement of productivity level, great changes took place in the living details in Han dynasty. The daily utensils were definitely divided and exquisitely made, which combined practicality with beauty in a perfect way.

The currencies in Zhao included “Handan knife-shaped coin and spade coin”. Resting on a main thoroughfare connecting the south and the north, Handan was the largest commercial center in the areas north of the Yellow River in the Warring States period. It brought a prosperous scene for the economic development in Handan. The frequent commerce and trade promoted the trend of running businesses and seeking for profits. The Zhao currencies had a large quantity in various types. In the old haunts in the Warring States period, Zhao currencies were found in a large number of places, which indicates that the Zhao currencies were used as the hard currency and widely spread.

Scaled Bronze Iron with Tianlu, Eastern Han

It is an ironing tool and was excavated in a Han tomb in Zhangzhuangqiao, 1970. The stand is 52cm high. The stand has a long pole, with a hoop in the middle and decorated with slanting pattern. The bottom has a circular foot in a shape of a reversed bowl, embellished with patterns of tooth and wave. On the top, there is a jack, which could be put an iron. A “Tianlu” (a legendary animal) was molded on the top. The iron has a straight handle, like a spoon. It has flat rims and flat bottom. The handle’s surface is smooth. The total length of the iron is 44cm, with a mouth diameter of 18.2cm. Explicit scales were cast in the front. This kind of iron with scales cast is really rare in China. It is a valuable cultural relic for the study of the scale system in Han dynasty.

13. This one on exhibition is a sand table model of the capital city of the Zhao State. The Zhao capital site is located the present-day southwestern Handan. It is one of the first cultural relic protection units at the state level. As a residence of the palace of the Zhao State, the city covers an area of 5,120,000 square meters and is composed of three small cities in east, west and north. It is in an irregular triangle shape. It is the largest and the best preserved capital city site in the Warring States period ever discovered in China.

The Western City: It is a nearly square city, with a side length of 1,390m and a width of 1,426m. The remained walls range from 3m to 8m. There are five tampered mounds extant at the site. The largest is called “dragon’s platform”. The dragon’s platform is located in the middle south of the western city, raising 16 meters higher than the ground. Its base side is about 300m. The base is a square while the four sides are like a terrace, with each rising above another. The top is flat. Another two tampered mounds stand in the north of the dragon’s platform. The three mounds form an axis running from south to north. This is the construction group site based on the dragon’s platform.

The Eastern City: Its plane is not as regular as that of the western city. The widest part is 926m from east to west and 1,442m from south to north. There are tampered mounds at the site, known as Southern Dian Jiang Tai and Northern Dian Jiang Tai (a platform for calling the muster roll of officers and assigning tasks). It should be the place for the king appointed generals and dispatched troops at that time.

The Northern City: It is located in the north of the eastern and western cities. The plane was very irregular. The widest part is 1,410m from east to west and 1,520m from south to north.

14. In 307BC, in order to realize the long-cherished wish of a prosperous country and wealthy people, King Wuling of Zhao State initiated an innovation, known as “Hu Fu Qi She” and first he decreed an order of wearing “Hu Fu”, i.e., the policy of adopting the handy and suitable Hu tribe’s clothing instead of the Han clothing with long robe and wide sleeves. Later, he conscribed the men who were good at cavalry archery and established a cavalry troop. The Zhao State became the first country to set up cavalry troops in the central plains, which inaugurated a great era of changing from the chariot fighting to a cavalry one in ancient military wars in China.

Bronze Arrowhead

The bronze arrowheads were used in the contemporary wars. Such bronze arrowheads were unearthed in great number in Handan. It is said that the present Chajianling Site in Handan was the training place for King Wuling to carry out his policy of “Hu Fu Qi She” and also was a venue for casting arrows of the capital. It was known as “Zhujianlu” (Casting Arrow Burner). Piles of smelting residues, broken pits of cauldrons and bundles of incomplete arrowheads were found at the south side, which indicates that it is a larger iron-smelting and arrow-casting place. The picture above is the Chajianling Site.

In order to prevent invasions launched by other states, Zhao built two great walls in south and north successively. The southern great walls were constructed in the period ruled by Zhao Suhou and located along the northern shore of the Zhang River. The northern great walls were built in King Wuling’s reign, starting from the northeastern Hebei to Daqing Mountain and Wula Mountain of the Yin Mountain ranges in the west. Most of them were tampered. This picture shows the northern great walls site of the Zhao State in Daqing Mountain in Inner Mongolia.

The bronze horses of Zhao are rare cultural relics, excavated in No. 2 King Tomb of Zhao. One is a walking horse, holding its head high. It is 18cm high and 24.5cm long. One is a standing horse, lowering its head, with a height of 15cm and a length of 23.5cm. The last one is also a standing horse, lowering its head to forage, with a height of 15cm and a length of 22.5cm. Their tails are all knotted. The three horses have bulging tendons, developed four limbs, plump backs, powerful hips and strong necks, all of which indicate that they are adult horses. Seen from sculpture artistic aspect, a 3D altorelievo sculpture composition was adopted when the horses were cast. A harmonious and brisk curve outlined the whole profile of the horse, showing a protruding and clear jaw, dignified eyes and smooth lines of the manes and tails. Even the hooves were vividly depicted. Thus, a dynamic horse and a static horse were incisively and vividly expressed. These three bronze horses were endowed with a perfect sculpture and fine depiction, which reflects an exquisite art in Zhao, together with the realistic style. They represent resplendent artistic achievement of Zhao Culture. These three bronze horses with realistic style were 400 years earlier than the famous “A Galloping Horse Hoofing on a Flying Swallow” in Han dynasty. They were also the historical witnesses of the reform of “Hu Fu Qi She” launched by King Wuling of Zhao.

The belt hook is a hook used for the belt. It was called “Xianbei” in ancient times. It was first used by the northern nomadic groups. In the Spring and Autumn period, the belt hooks were introduced into the central plains and were used till Han dynasty. Its basic shape contains one end to be nailed on the belt and another curved end as the hook to hitch the other end of the belt. In the middle, there is a hook. It is S-shaped from side view.

15. Zhao took Jinyang (southwest of the present Taiyuan), Geng (the present-day Xingtai) and Zhongmu at its capitals one after another. In order to realize the grand prospect of contending for hegemony, Zhao Jinghou shifted his capital to Handan in 386BC. Handan enjoys a convenient transportation and developed commerce and trade industry. It was the political, economic, military and cultural center of Zhao. “The ancient Handan city of Zhao” in the Warring States period covered an area of 18,876,000 square meters. Handan in Han dynasty was developed on the ground of the “big northern city” of the ancient Handan city in the Warring States period. The picture above is the “dragon’s platform” of Zhao’ capital in the Warring States period, which nestles in the southwest of today’s Handan city. The big northern city of “The ancient Handan city of Zhao” served as the business area and residential area at that time and was also used as the Handan city in Han dynasty.

The big bronze basin with horse’s head in the early Warring States period is a water container. When the copper mirror was not popular, the ancient people commonly poured water into the basin to mirror their images. The basin can also be used in bathing.

16. The drainage channel is the drainage facility of the city wall. It was paved from the groundwork to the top of the wall. Rains could run into the channel and drain downward. This drainage channel was located in the interior of the middle part of the south wall of the western city of Zhao’s capital. On the slope of the surviving walls on the ground, the channel is divided into ten sections, with the two ends damaged. Tiles were paved on the city wall, serving as the water preventive facility. The pantiles and flat tiles covered the wall in an inclined plane at 16°into two layers.

The pottery pipelines are the drainage facility in the city and first appeared in Shang and Zhou period. They became perfected after the Warring States period. The water network composed of all types of pottery pipelines provided great conveniences of transporting water for the urban residents. The discovery of the pottery pipelines and water network at the urban site fully indicates that Handan city solved the water problems by laying water pipelines in the Warring States period.

17. The pottery wells were generally piled up by cylinder pottery crib rings with same sizes. The mouth diameter of the crib rings ranges from 60cm to 100cm. Generally speaking, the earlier ones had a higher body with a small diameter. The later ones were shorter with a big diameter. The crib rings were made of grey pottery in the method of coiling clay ropes. Rope patterns were marked on the outside.

In the Warring States period, a cylinder pit larger than the well should be dug first before digging a well. Then the rings were laid over one after another inside the pit till the wellhead. If a well was dug in quicksand, a round pit was dredged to the quicksand layer and then the rings were laid down to the necessary depth. The creation of pottery crib rings made it possible to dig a well in an area with bad soil and quicksand. It played a great role in solving the drinking and irrigating problems for the people.

18. Please pay attention to the model of city wall of Zhao’s capital. The city walls were tampered and built. The interior city rose in a step style. An inclining layer formed every 1.5m to 2m. Such a layer is about one meter wide, paved with pantiles and flat tiles. This facility preventing the rain eroding city walls is called “puwa”, or laid tiles. A pottery groove was paved every 30m in the inner side of the walls. The groove section is concave, with two notches in the lower part, each hitching the other, for the drainage of rainfalls on the wall. The building structure with laid tiles and drainage channels can only be seen in the ancient Handan city of Zhao. It is a great feature of the architectural cultural of Zhao and is of great significance in the history of ancient architecture.

19. When the gentries held large ceremonies in Zhou dynasty, they ordered to arrange a group of dings to contain meats such as beef, mutton and pork and other musical instruments hanging around including serial bells and serial chimes. It is the phrase “Zhong Ming Ding Shi” (bells ringing and dings holding meats as literal meaning, to live an extravagant life as figurative meaning) recorded in history. Historical documents suggest that the king in Western Zhou used nine dings, the leuds seven, ministers five, and scholar-officials three or one. Nobody could arrogate.

Bian Zhong/Serial Bells

They are bells arranged on the stands according to different musical scales. Because they vary in sizes and in tone colors when played, the bells are beautiful and pleasant to listen to. The serial bells unearthed in different places vary in sizes.

Bian Qing/Serial Chimes

The chimes look like try squares. Generally, they were made of stone or jade. This set of serial chimes was made of stone, totaling five.

Zhao Yang, an official of the Jin State in the Spring and Autumn period, once used seven dings, which was an arrogant activity and showed his strong power. The Bo Zhong (big bell) on exhibition was the first set of serial bells in the Warring States period unearthed in Hebei province. They were excavated in the same period to the serial bells found in Leigudun, Hubei province. Those bells were percussion instruments popular in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period and used in banquets or sacrifices by the aristocrats. They were together used with serial chimes. When we see these serial bells and chimes, we can imagine the living scenes of “Zhong Ming Ding shi” called by the ancestor.

20. The picture above is a co-burial chariot pit of No. 2 King Tomb of Zhao. It is located in the east of the mausoleum. Four chariots and fourteen horses were unearthed. It is a larger chariot pit discovered in the King Tomb of Zhao. The ancient people regarded that the souls would never perish after death. In order to comfort the souls of the deceased, a funereal environment was arranged according to the preferences of the dead and a large number of articles were co-buried. Thus, the dead would swagger around and live an extravagant life in the kingdom of heaven.

This bronze knocker-holder, in the Warring States period, is 17cm long and 8cm high. It looks like an animal’s face, with open eyes, curling nose, and coiled horns in a shape of a vase. The lower part of the knocker-holder was lost. A bronze wedge is at the back. The whole article enjoys an elegant shape, glossy and crystal, which reflects the bronze smelting technique in Zhao reached a quite high level.

These are the jade pieces and jade guis, totaling 258, excavated in No. 2 King Tomb of Zhao. The jade is fine, in bluish white and bullish gray. Most jade pieces are rectangular, with grinded traces around. Small holes ranging from six to ten rest on each piece. The jade pieces are comparatively large and are suggested to be the jade armor.

The gold plate decoration, discovered in No. 2 King Tomb of Zhao, is an adornment of the belt. It is 7cm long and 3cm high. It was carved with an openwork technique, decorated with double dragons in the middle, which mouthed ruyi inside. The dragons have delicate lines, with cloud pattern on the framework. The whole article was exquisitely made, with fancy patterns. The processing technology reached a high level.

The picture above is No. 1 Pit of Buried Horses in Baijia Village, Handan. There were 26 buried horses. The pit of buried horses in the tomb of Jinggong of Qi in the Spring and Autumn period extends 215m with a width of 4.8m. It was estimated that over 600 horses were buried alive. Most chariot pits were rectangular at that time while the three states split from Jin, i.e., Han, Zhao, Wei had their chariot pits separated into chariot pits and horses pits. Meanwhile, the chariot pita and horse pit intersected with each other in a try square shape. It was a unique co-burial form.

21. This is a gold seal of Guanzhong Hou (Marquise Guanzhong). The Guanzhong refers to the fertile reaches of the Wei River. Guanzhong Hou was a conferred title and the rank of nobility after Eastern Han.

Bojiutaosanyin is private seals. It consists of three seals and can be socketed from the smaller into the larger. The small animal crouches under the belly of the large animal after socketing. It is very interesting and funny. The shape is very original. Up to now, this set of seals has been recorded into The Dictionary of Gems of China’s Cultural Relics.

The Han tombs in Zhangzhuangqiao are situated in southern suburban Handan. Two tombs were excavated and both were found with pieces of jade clothes. The jade burial clothes were made from jade pieces in various shapes and sizes and sewn with threads of gold, sliver and bronze to shroud the deceased. They were the special funereal clothes made for the kings, princes and their concubines. There was strict grading system to wear. In the jade pieces discovered in No. 2 tomb, gilded bronze wires survived in the small holes of the four corners. According to the system of jade clothes at that time, the tomb must have been a king’s tomb of Zhao in Han dynasty.

22. In the Warring States period and Han dynasty, the customs in Zhao possessed distinctive features. Zhao was situated in the bordering place between the central plains and the northern grassland. It was influenced both by the culture from the central plains and the northern ethnic groups. The people were brave, valiant, courageous and generous and also had the romantic temperament that they were best at singing and dancing and could write poems. Thus, Handan, the then capital, became a cultural and academic center of the “contention of a hundred schools of thought” and a large number of stories were handed on from generation to generation.

In Shiji, or Records of the Historian, Sima Qian said in such a way, “The states of Zhao and Zhongshan have less land and more people. The males gather to play and their voices are deep and moving. They kill persons and seize their goods in the morning and have illicit sexual relations at night. There are plenty of beautiful males who become actors. The females are good at playing string instruments and dancing in an elegant way. They win favor of the rich and become concubines of the princes”. That paragraph reflects certain features of the customs in Zhao.

This is a bronze pitch-pot. The pitch-pot was an entertainment of the then people. The players took the arrows made of wood or bamboo and hurled them into the pot from a certain distance and with a rhythmic tempo. Some beans were put into the pot first to prevent the arrows from bouncing out. Later, another method was added, for instance, to put some arrows inside the pot first and then to hurl. After that, the bounced arrows were calculated to decide the loser or winner.

These are several famous allusions of idioms relating to Handan. According to the introduction of Historical Stories of Handan Idioms written by Mr. Hao Zaizhao, over 1,580 idioms derived from the history and culture in Handan, which became an important cultural heritage of Handan. The city was awarded as “the capital of idioms”. The following are several famous idiomatic allusions.

Learning to Walk Like a Native of Handan

According to Autumn Water of the Works of Zhuang Zi, A young man of the town of Shouling heard that the people of Handan City, capital of the Zhao State, walked with a certain beautiful step. So he traveled a long way to learn the art of graceful walking. Later, the man failed to learn and found he couldn’t even walk the old way. He could only set off on his knees. Though the story was exaggerated. It reflects that the Handan music and dance enjoyed a popular fame at that time. In the Warring States period, not only the females were good at playing string instruments and dancing but also the males walked with rhythms and their fames were widely spread.

Returning the Jade Intact to Zhao

According to Biography of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru in Shiji, when the king of Qin heard that the king of Zhao received a rare and valuable jade, “He’s Jade”, he appointed one envoy to offer fifteen cities in exchange for the jade in 283BC. Forced by the powerful Qin, the king of Zhao sent Lin Xiangru to carry the jade to Qin. When Lin learned that the king of Qin would make a sincere exchange, he ordered his attendants to carry the jade back to Zhao from bypaths. When the king of Qin heard that the jade bi was already returned to Zhao, he wanted to chop off Lin Xiangru, who had an inspiring awe by upholding justice and presented his views vehemently. Lin asked the king of Qin to give cities first to Zhao and then he would take the jade bi from Zhao. Unwillingly, the king of Qin had to release him.

Proffering Thorns and Asking for a Flogging

Lin Xiangru was promoted him to Shangqing (chief minister) because of his merits. The rank was higher than that of General Lian Po, who felt it unjust and then tried to humiliate Lin time and again. Lin Xiangru took the national affair as the first important thing and avoided at all costs. When Lian Po learned that, he was deeply moved and carried thorns on his back to Lin’s house, asking for a flogging. This story was later complied into a drama, General and Premier Make Up, which has been performed until today. There is a “returning lane” in the south gate of the ancient Handan city, which is said to be the place that Lin Xiangru avoided meeting Lian Po.

Mao Sui Recommending Himself

According to the record in Shiji, Mao Sui was a hanger-on to Zhao Sheng, known as Lord Pingyuan. In 259BC, the Qin army besieged Handan. Lord Pingyuan wanted to find several persons together with him to go to the Chu State to assist his country. Mao Sui recommended himself and went with the Lord. When they reached Chu, Mao Sui successfully convinced the king of Chu with the stick and the carrot to save Zhao. His behavior revealed the spirit and style of the Zhao people who were wise, brave,  and eloquent.

23. The most valuable treasure is put in the single cabinet, i.e., the Gilded and Silvering Grand Zun with a Tray Made by “Shu Xi Gong”. The drinking zun was a high-ranking drinking vessel used by the gentries in Han dynasty. The article is divided into two parts: a zun and a tray. Both parts got silvering on the body and their patterns were gilded. It is very exquisite. On the tray was carved with inscriptions in official script, saying, “In the 23rd year of Emperor Jianwu’s reign, made by Xi Gong from Shu prefecture, a grand zun with a tray”. The three legs were modeled after bears, which shoulders the tray. The bears are opening their mouths, with tongues sticking out, very ferocious. The body was embedded with turquoises and cream-colored crystal beads, which shine on the gilded body. They are really bright and magnificent. The zun has a shape of vertical barrel, and dragon-like knock-holders were hollowed out along both sides of the belly. The three legs are decorated with bears and the decorations are similar to those of the tray. On the belly of the zun, a vivid scene in the fairyland was depicted including floating cloud, birds, running deer, feathered men, West Queen, waiters and waitress, and wonderful flowers and grasses through a fine thread carving. It reflects that the then people admired the beautiful life in the fairyland.

This is the end of the exhibition of Zhao Culture. Please go on visiting the Ancient Stone Carving Art in Handan. Thank you.


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